RESUME JURNAL Sistem informasi berbasis geografis pendukung keputusan untuk perencanaan konservasi tanah di Tajikistan

Judul   : Geographic information system–based decision support for soil conservation planning       in Tajikistan

Penulis: E. Bühlmann, B. Wolfgramm, D. Maselli, H. Hurni, S.R. Sanginov, and H.P. Liniger

 

Erosi tanah pada lahan pertanian miring menimbulkan masalah serius bagi lingkungan, serta untuk produksi. Di daerah dengan tanah yang sangat erodible, seperti di zona loess, tindakan konservasi aplikasi tanah dan air sangat penting untuk mempertahankan hasil pertanian dan untuk mencegah atau mengurangi degradasi lahan. Penelitian ini, dilakukan di Faizabad, Tajikistan, dirancang untuk mengevaluasi potensi tindakan konservasi lokal pada lahan pertanian menggunakan pendekatan pemodelan spasial untuk menyediakan pengambilan keputusan dukungan untuk perencanaan penggunaan lahan secara spasial eksplisit berkelanjutan. Sebuah desain sampling untuk mendukung analisis komparatif  baik dilestarikan unit dan unit lapangan lainnya didirikan untuk memperkirakan faktor-faktor yang menentukan erosi air, sesuai dengan Persamaan Rugi Tanah Revisi Universal (RUSLE).

Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa mengintegrasikan metode lapangan diterapkan pada beberapa tingkat sampling yang berbeda ke dalam pemodelan RUSLE dengan cara menggabungkan metode sesuai dengan kekuatan khusus mereka. Pendekatan RUSLE disajikan berdasarkan pada data sederhana , dan batasan umum di negara-negara berkembang. Kegunaan praktis didasarkan pada penyediaan sarana untuk mengevaluasi dampak dari praktek konservasi pada erosi tanah saat ini dengan perbandingan relatif, bukan pada prediksi nilai erosi tanah mutlak.

Seperti faktor pendekatan berbasis aplikasi memungkinkan  siap menggunakan sistem informasi geografis dan memfasilitasi pemodelan skenario langsung di daerah dengan sumber data yang terbatas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penilaian pertama erosi dan konservasi di daerah dengan tutupan vegetasi homogen memerlukan integrasi plot berbasis penutup. Plot berbasis tutupan vegetasi dapat secara efektif berasal dari resolusi tinggi citra satelit, menyediakan dasar yang berguna untuk plot  perencanaan konservasi. Selain itu, penilaian lapangan yang menyeluruh menunjukkan bahwa 25,7% dari arus total lahan pertanian ditutupi oleh tindakan konservasi (terasering, agroforestry, dan pakan ternak herbal abadi). Penilaian terhadap efektivitas langkah-langkah lokal, dikombinasikan dengan perhitungan RUSLE, mengungkapkan bahwa saat ini rata-rata kehilangan tanah dapat dikurangi melalui langkah-langkah seperti contouring (sebesar 11%), tanaman pakan ternak (16%), dan saluran drainase ( sebesar 53%).

Ketika menerapkan RUSLE ke wilayah yang lebih luas, dan terutama daerah dengan tutupan vegetasi homogen, integrasi plot berbasis penutup, berasal paling efisien dari resolusi tinggi citra satelit, sehingga sangat penting untuk memungkinkan alur  perencanaan konservasi. Penulis menyarankan bahwa tanaman-spesifik, disesuaikan  dengan faktor C secara musiman dihitung atas dasar FVC pada resolusi alur lapangan.

Pemodelan RUSLE terbukti cocok untuk pemodelan skenario sederhana.

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